Does kidney donation depend on blood type?

You may have heard conversations about “compatibility” and kidney transplant. In fact, there are three tests that are done to evaluate donors. These are blood type tests, cross-tests, and HLA. This blood test is the first step in the living donation process and determines if you are a match or “compatible with your recipient”.

Blood Types There are 4 different blood types. The most common blood group in the population is type O. The next most common is blood group A, then blood group B, and the rarest is blood group AB. The donor's blood group must be compatible with the recipient.

The rules for blood type in transplantation are the same as for blood transfusion. Some types of blood can be transmitted to others and others can't. Blood group O is considered to be the universal donor. People with blood group O can donate to any other blood type.

Blood group AB is called a universal recipient because it can receive an organ or blood from people with any type of blood. The table below shows which blood type you can donate to which blood group. Kidneys are compared according to blood type. The process of matching blood types of blood donors to their blood type is known as “cross-testing.” The table below shows which blood groups match (are compatible).

If you have a living donor, but that person's kidney isn't compatible with you, you can still receive a kidney transplant from a living donor. If your blood type doesn't match that of the donor, you won't be able to get a kidney from that person directly, but you can still receive a kidney transplant from another donor through paired kidney donation. The recipient's body will always see an organ as a foreign object. If a deceased donor and a transplant recipient do not share the same blood type, a transplant will not be performed.

When a living donor and a transplant recipient do not share the same blood type, the recipient may undergo special treatment to calm the immune system and allow the recipient to accept the kidney that is incompatible with the living donor's blood group. Without this treatment, the recipient's body will reject the new kidney, resulting in failure of the transplant. Ideally, blood types should be compatible. This is quite complicated, but in general, a person who has the blood type O can donate to anyone; Or it is a universal donor.

However, a person with blood group A can only donate to someone with blood group A, blood group B to B, and AB to AB. As for the recipient, a person with blood group O can only receive one kidney O, however, a person with blood type A can receive kidney A or O and a person with blood type B can receive kidney B or O. Normally, the recipient or his family will approach the donor and ask if he or she would be prepared to donate a kidney. In addition, from the perspective of the recipient, a younger kidney is better than an older one and, if someone is very large, the ideal is that they have a kidney of someone of similar size.

At the same time last year, there were more than 4,500 adults on the UK's active kidney transplant list waiting for a new kidney. It is obvious that an increase in post-mortem organ donation rates would positively affect patients of all blood groups who were on the waiting list and not just for kidney transplantation. The National Kidney Foundation (NKF) is the largest, most comprehensive and oldest organization dedicated to the awareness, prevention and treatment of kidney disease.

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